VICTOR – Virtual Control Tower Research Studies

FlughafentowerVICTOR is a project conducted on behalf of the DFS Deutsche Flugsicherung GmbH (German Air Navigation Service) within the framework of Lufo-IV’s research program Innovative AirPort (short: iPort). In cooperation with other partners, HFC worked on a new air traffic controller workstation designed from a human factors perspective.

Being a part of iPort-subproject 3 (taxi guidance), the goal of VICTOR was to develop an air traffic controller workstation for a tower facility which is used to remotely monitor and manage one or more regional airports. Thus the project was in line with current national and international tendencies to counter the growing air traffic with innovative air traffic control concepts.

The focus of our work was the design of the location and weather-independent view out of the tower window and the evaluation of the corresponding new operational concept.

In a user-centered, iterative work process, prototypes were developed and evaluated by air traffic controllers. A detailed analysis of an ATCO’s tasks in the form of a status-quo analysis built the basis for the requirement analysis and other studies.

victor2It was conducted at three German regional airports. Requirements for the new workplace and the artificial vision were derived from the task analysis. They resulted in a design suggestion, which was discussed and revised with air traffic controllers in a workshop. Additionally, a laboratory test was conducted in cooperation with the University of Technology Berlin to evaluate the new operational concept.


  • TTC The Tower Company
  • TU Berlin
  • TU Dresden
  • DLR Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt (German Aerospace Center)

Publications (Selection)

  • Oehme, A., Leitner, R. & Wittbrodt, N. (2013). Challenges of multiple control – Experimental investigation of a multi airport control concept. Aviation psychology and applied human factors, 3 (1), 1-8.
  • Oehme, A., & Schulz-Rueckert, D. (2010). Distant air traffic control for regional airports. Proceedings of the 11th IFAC-Symposium on Analysis, Design, and Evaluation of Human-Machine Systems. Valencienne, France. 141-145. DOI: 10.3182/20100831-4-FR-2021.00026
  • Oehme, A., & Schulz-Rückert, D. (2010). Automation in aerodrome traffic control. In A. Droog, & M. Heese, Proceedings of the 29th EAAP conference (pp. 109-114). Budapest, Hungary.



  • Task analysis & requirements analysis
  • Focus groups and observations
  • Concepts of interaction and
  • GUI design
  • Usability testing
  • Eyetracking